University of Pittsburgh Course Descriptions University of Pittsburgh Dietrich School of Arts and Sciences College of General Studies University Honors College College of Business Administration Swanson School of Engineering Course Descriptions

Key - General Education Requirements, Dietrich School of Arts and Sciences
G Seminar in Composition EX Creative Expression L Foreign Language
W Writing Intensive PH Philosophy COM International/Foreign Culture: Comparative
Q Quantitative and Formal Reasoning SS Social Science GLO International/Foreign Culture: Global
LIT Literature HS Historical Change REG International/Foreign Culture: Regional
MA The Arts NS Natural Sciences IFN International/Foreign Culture: Non-Western
Key - Basic Skills Requirements, Dietrich School of Arts and Sciences
I   Workshop in Composition
A  Algebra
Other Keys: Term/Session Codes | Subjects | Special Indicators | Days | Classrooms

FR Courses 2141

0001 Elementary French 1   5 cr.
10052 AT MoTuWeThFr 10:00 AM-10:50 AM 00318 CL     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 19 Demuynck, Alice 
10053 AT MoTuWeThFr 12:00 PM-12:50 PM 00229 CL     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 19 Grove, Sylvia 
10054 AT MoTuWeThFr 11:00 AM-11:50 AM 00G18 CL     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 19 Riser, Thomas 
12021 AT MoTuWeThFr 11:00 AM-11:50 AM 00249 CL     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 19 Boyer, Gabriel 
21419 AT MoTuWeThFr 01:00 PM-01:50 PM 00229 CL     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 19 Bock, Amanda 

This five-hour-per-week course introduces students to the French language, and is designed to develop both linguistic and sociolinguistic competence in both spoken and written French. Because the focus is on task-centered communication, the class is conducted entirely in the target language. Course objectives for Elementary French 0001 are: a) to speak French well enough to describe, narrate and ask simple questions in the present about a variety of everyday topics such as family, work, eating and traveling; b) to understand French well enough to grasp main ideas in short conversations about everyday topics; c) to understand simple written French well enough to grasp main ideas; d) to write sentences and short paragraphs on everyday topics; f) to develop an awareness of French-speaking cultures; f) to understand, at a very basic level, how French functions as a language. This course is for students with little or no previous exposure to the language and its cultures. TAUGHT IN FRENCH Prerequisite(s): none

Prerequisite(s): none

Check with the department on how often this course is offered.

0002 Elementary French 2 L    5 cr.
10055 AT MoTuWeThFr 12:00 PM-12:50 PM 00227 CL     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 19 Dimitrova, Annie 
11984 AT MoWe 06:00 PM-08:05 PM 00228 VICTO     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 19 Moriaty, Kathleen 
13000 AT MoTuWeThFr 11:00 AM-11:50 AM 00237 CL     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 19 Dimitrova, Annie 

As a continuation of French 1 or French 1 on-line, this 5-hour-per-week course introduces students to the French language, building on skills gained in French 1 or French 1 on-line. Culturally-contextualized comprehension and production abilities in both written and spoken form are stressed. Because the focus is on communication, French 2 is taught entirely in the target language. Objectives are similar to those in French 1, but expanded for this more advanced level.

Prerequisite(s): none

Check with the department on how often this course is offered.

0003 Intermediate French 1 L    3 cr.
10056 AT MoWeFr 11:00 AM-11:50 AM 05405 WWPH     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 19 Tomkowicz, Paulina 
10057 AT MoWeFr 12:00 PM-12:50 PM 00411 IS     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 19 Wells, Brett 
11973 AT MoWeFr 10:00 AM-10:50 AM 05201 WWPH     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 19 Tomkowicz, Paulina 
12020 SE3 TuTh 06:00 PM-07:15 PM 00318 CL     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 19 Cartwright, Jerry 

This intermediate, three hour-per-week course builds on the skills acquired during the first year of study in French 1 and 2, while further developing linguistic and sociolinguistic competence in French. Because the focus is on communication, the course is taught entirely in the target language. Course objectives for French 3 are as follows: 1) speak French well enough to ask and answer questions in various situations beyond what is needed to simply "survive" in a francophone culture, i.e., the ability to talk about self and surroundings in some detail; 2) understand enough spoken French to grasp main ideas and some supporting details in short conversations related to topics above; 3) read well enough to understand principal themes and most details in simple literary and non-literary texts; 4) write longer and more cohesive paragraphs; 5) cultivate a deeper understanding of French-speaking cultures; 6) gain a better understanding of how French works as a language.

Prerequisite(s): none

Check with the department on how often this course is offered.

0004 Intermediate French 2   3 cr.
10058 AT MoWeFr 11:00 AM-11:50 AM 05201 WWPH     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 19 Ganster, Anne 
10059 AT MoWeFr 12:00 PM-12:50 PM 0244A CL     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 19 Ganster, Anne 
12019 AT MoWeFr 10:00 AM-10:50 AM 00352 CL     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 19 BoumMake, Jennifer 

As a continuation of French 3, this 3-hour course builds on the linguistic and sociolinguistic skills acquired in French 3. The focus is on communication and instruction is entirely in the target language. Course objectives for French 4 are as follows: 1) speak French well enough to ask and answer questions in various situations beyond what is needed to simply "get along" in a francophone culture, i.e., the ability to talk about self and surroundings with a bit of detail; 2) understand enough spoken French to grasp main ideas and some supporting details in short conversations related to topics above; 3) read well enough to understand principal themes and most details in simple literary and non-literary texts; 4) write longer and more cohesive paragraphs; 5) cultivate a deeper understanding of French-speaking cultures; 6) gain a better understanding of how French works as a language.

Prerequisite(s): none

Check with the department on how often this course is offered.

0007 Intensive French For Reading 1   4 cr.
28608 AT MoWe 06:00 PM-07:40 PM 00358 CL     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 20 Cartwright, Jerry 

This beginning course focuses on one language competency: reading. Coursework is designed to teach students the basic lexical structure and grammar of written French in order to acquire reading skills in the language. Course is taught in English and no oral, written or laboratory work is required. Students do short readings and one-way translations to improve comprehension skills.

Prerequisite(s): none

Check with the department on how often this course is offered.

0020 France In The 21st Century REG   3 cr.
12398 AT MoWeFr 11:00 AM-11:50 AM 00G28 BENDM     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 25 Ertunga, Mert 
21215 AT TuTh 09:30 AM-10:45 AM 0244B CL     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 20 Cartwright, Jerry 

This course is designed to lead students to a better understanding of France today. We pay particular attention to different forms of identity in France: national, religious, regional, ethnic. Wherever feasible, class discussion will center on primary documents (newspapers, magazines, films, cartoons, public opinion polls, etc.). The format is a combination of lectures and discussions. French is the language of instruction and of students' written work.

Prerequisite(s): PREQ: FR 0004 or 0021 or 0027 or 0055 or 0056 (MIN GRADE: 'C' for all listed Courses)

Check with the department on how often this course is offered.

0021 Apprches To French Literature LIT    3 cr.
11754 AT MoWeFr 10:00 AM-10:50 AM 00G28 BENDM     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 22 Mateos, Maeva 
12987 AT TuTh 02:30 PM-03:45 PM 00202 CL     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 22 Walsh, John 

The purpose of this course is to illustrate ways of looking at literary texts. We shall examine poems, prose works and plays from France and the francophone world, trying to answer some of the following questions: What are the characteristics of these different genres? What is specifically literary in the text? How can reading such a text make us more able to understand today's world? Considering these questions should make students more familiar with French-language literary production and also help them understand the literary phenomenon in general.

Prerequisite(s): PREQ: FR 0004 or 0020 or 0027 or 0055 or 0056 (MIN GRADE: 'C' for all listed Courses)

Check with the department on how often this course is offered.

0027 The French Atlantic HS  REG   3 cr.
21567 AT TuTh 09:30 AM-10:45 AM 00158 BENDM     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 30 Walsh, John 

In this course we will explore the encounter between Europeans, Africans and Americans in the New World. The course is designed to give students a historical perspective on the French presence in the Americas, with a particular emphasis on the period that ranges from the early 16th century to the early 19th century. The course is taught entirely in French. Our goal is to encourage students to read, contextualize and understand important documents in the original language, while promoting development of their written and oral expression in order to more effectively communicate that understanding. The French Atlantic fulfills the General Education Requirement for a course in historical change.

Prerequisite(s): PREQ: FR 0004 or 0020 or 0021 or 0055 or 0056 (MIN GRADE:

Check with the department on how often this course is offered.

0055 French Conversation   3 cr.
12250 AT TuTh 11:00 AM-12:15 PM 00114 VICTO     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 18 Monserrat, Delphine 
21568 AT TuTh 01:00 PM-02:15 PM 00117 VICTO     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 18 Monserrat, Delphine 

In this course students will continue to develop oral proficiency in French through engaging in conversation, providing and obtaining information, and exchanging opinions. Students present informally during debates and sketches as well as more formally through oral exposes and digitally recorded oral samples. Understanding of the cultural implications of written and visual texts is enhanced through exposure to current news stories and films.

Prerequisite(s): PREQ: FR 0004 or 0020 or 0021 or 0027 or 0056 (MIN GRADE: 'C' for all listed Courses)

Check with the department on how often this course is offered.

0056 Written French 1   3 cr.
10060 AT TuTh 02:30 PM-03:45 PM 00229 CL     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 20 Mecchia, Giuseppina 

The course is designed to promote the development of writing skills through a writing-as-process approach. Class work and written assignments will include journal writing, grammar review, vocabulary development, and analysis of model texts. Based on close work with models, students will then craft substantial compositions, each illustrating a function (narration, description) or a genre (essay, film review). Attention will be given to helping students improve as writers by learning to analyze, edit, and revise their own work. Course taught in French.

Prerequisite(s): PREQ: FR 0004 or 0020 or 0021 or 0027 or 0055 (MIN GRADE:

Check with the department on how often this course is offered.

0058 Advanced French Conversation   1 cr.
10061 AT MoWe 12:00 PM-12:50 PM 00253 CL     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 18 Moriarity, Kathleen 

This one-unit class at once builds on and complements French 55. It is designed to improve students’ oral proficiency and sociolinguistic competence through contextualized simulated immersion. The course is divided into four sections, each demanding different, but complementary social and linguistic skills, to wit 1) getting to know people and places; 2) current events; 3) debate and disagreement; 4) cultural comparisons. Emphasis is on acquiring the authentic oral communication skills, in the widest sense of the term, necessary to navigate expertly French-speaking environments.

Prerequisite(s): PREQ: FR 0055

Check with the department on how often this course is offered.

0080 Modern French Novel LIT  W  3 cr.
12399 AT TuTh 09:30 AM-10:45 AM 00226 CL   WRIT   No recitation.   Enroll Limit 20 Kosinski, Renate 

This course introduces students to some of the novels that have shaped the modern French literary sensibility and show how the French novel has evolved from the 19th-century novelist Guy de Maupassant to the modern writers Albert Camus and Marguerite Duras. From social climbers and expatriate lovers of exoticism in the late 19th-century and early 20th-century to those people who experienced the trauma of the German Occupation of France in 1940 and the Holocaust, we will encounter characters who struggled to survive and to define themselves in often difficult circumstances. We will read six novels in English translation and analyze one film. Our goal is not only a better comprehension of literary texts but also an exploration of different ways of reading and writing about complex novels. This course fulfills the Writing Requirement toward the French major and the LIT general education requirement. It does not count as a credit requirement for the French major. This course will be taught in English.

Prerequisite(s): none

Check with the department on how often this course is offered.

0080 Modern French Novel LIT  W  3 cr.
28796 AT TuTh 09:30 AM-10:45 AM 00327 CL   WRIT   No recitation.   Enroll Limit 20 Zack, Moir 

In this course we will read six or seven major modern French novels chosen for their importance in world literature: they will be read in English translation. We will study these novels as examples of different ways in which fictional narratives structure human experience in modern society. The novel has been the dominant narrative model for imagining the self and its relation to society for the last two hundred years. Unlike psychology's generalizing approach to understanding experience, the novel shows individuals in particular complex situations. So the novel is closer to the real complexity of everyday life, but unlike the particular situations of everyday life, the ones we encounter in novels have been isolated and fixed in time so that we can study them in all their complexity. By studying a variety of French novels from the 19th and 20th centuries, we will see how narrative form has changed to accommodate a changing understanding of society and the individual subject. This course does not count toward the French major.

Prerequisite(s): none

Check with the department on how often this course is offered.

1038 Structure Of Modern French   3 cr.
27504 AT MoWeFr 01:00 PM-01:50 PM 00G13 CL LA STRUCTURE DU FRANÇAIS MODERNE   No recitation.   Enroll Limit 25 Wells, Brett 

Dans ce cours, il s’agit d’initier les apprenants à l’étude de la grammaire en tant que système sémantique qui leur propose des choix. Ils se mettront donc à la maîtrise du français (parlé et écrit) en tenant compte des conséquences pragmatiques (et sociolinguistiques) de ceux-ci. Outre une introduction à la grammaire dite fonctionnelle, nous explorerons également la notion de « rectitude » grammaticale telle que définie par les normes pédagogiques métropolitaines et québécoises. (EN FRANÇAIS)

Prerequisite(s): none

Check with the department on how often this course is offered.

1085 Women'S Voices In French Lit EX    3 cr.
27503 AT TuTh 11:00 AM-12:15 PM 0244B CL     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 20 Kosinski, Renate 

In this course we will explore how women writers from the twelfth to the twentieth centuries construct authoritative voices for themselves; how they see their place in society and deal with the conflicts between the learned sphere and married life; and how, through their own writings, they both integrate themselves into existing traditions and create new ones. Texts include the Lais of the medieval writer Marie de France; works by Christine de Pizan and several Renaissance poets (including Louise Labé); epistolary novels of the 18th century as well as works by Colette and the modern African writer Mariama Bâ. We will also explore the role of French women artists in one or tow films. This course will be taught in French.

Prerequisite(s): none

Check with the department on how often this course is offered.

1088 Special Topics   3 cr.
22850 AT TuTh 01:00 PM-02:15 PM 00G29 BENDM Barbarians in Asia: French Modern Literature of the East   No recitation.   Enroll Limit 20 Ryder, Andrew 

This course concerns literature by French authors in Asian settings, and the transformations in genre and style produced by cultural dislocation. These works–memoirs, novels, and one play–take place in China, Japan, India, Indonesia, Yemen, Palestine, and Jordan. The narratives foreground personal encounters, as well as matters of political conflict. The class also includes consideration of the development of French modernism over the period of a half-century, from surrealism and existentialism to the “new novel” and after. The course will be taught in English. Texts: Paul Nizan, “Aden Arabie” (1931), Henri Michaux, “A Barbarian in Asia” (1933), André Malraux, “Man's Fate” (1933), Marguerite Duras, “The Vice Consul” (1965) and “India Song” (1973), and Jean Genet, “Prisoner of Love” (1986).

Prerequisite(s): none

Check with the department on how often this course is offered.

1902 Directed Study   1 to 3 cr.
10062 AT  - TBA TBA     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 15 Wells,Brett  

Description not available at this time.

Prerequisite(s): none

Check with the department on how often this course is offered.

1903 Honors Dir Research:Fr Majors   1 to 3 cr.
10063 AT  - TBA TBA     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 5 Wells,Brett  

Description not available at this time.

Prerequisite(s): none

Check with the department on how often this course is offered.

1905 Internship In French   1 to 6 cr.
11326 AT  - TBA TBA     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 10 Wells,Brett  

Description not available at this time.

Prerequisite(s): none

Check with the department on how often this course is offered.

2225 Seminr: Sixteenth Centur Topic   3 cr.
27514 AT Tu 02:30 PM-04:55 PM 01325 CL Birth of a Nation: France and Frenchness in the 16th Century   No recitation.   Enroll Limit 12 Reeser, Todd 

In French studies, the sixteenth century is often taken as a key moment in the birth and development of the French nation. Under François I, French becomes the official language of the state, and writers of fiction increasingly depict a French community and make a proto-nationalism an element of their work. In the introduction to her collection of short stories L’Heptameron (1558), Marguerite de Navarre, François I’s sister, differentiates her work from her Italian model Boccaccio and attempts to delineate a distinctly French narrative tradition. Also in 1558, Joachim Du Bellay publishes his famous La Défence et illustration de la langue françoyse, which lays the linguistic basis for a French nation, and his literary corpus “illustrates” poetically many of the ideas about the nation that he imagines. In this century of emerging national definitions, numerous other writers and thinkers create a certain idea of France, often by differentiating the French from groups such as Italians, Turks, Amerindians, and Spanish. At the same time, however, Humanist writers tend to position their national origins as ancient in nature so that France can be taken as a continuation of, and heir to, Greek or Roman culture. But France is also a slippery construct, never fully present and in constant danger of coming into non-existence. In this course, we will examine what “France” and “Frenchness” mean in a Renaissance context. What constructs are used to create a nation when there isn’t much of one to begin with? What is the role of the other in this process? What is a national border? How is the land that is France represented? How does the new world factor in to these questions? Orientalism? To what extent can key aspects of 21st century French culture (food, fashion, socialism, maps) be located in an early modern context? How do literature and narrative form construct the nation? What about Humanism? How and why is the nation gendered? What is the role of race and ethnicity in all this? Can we even talk about race in this context? What does the king signify, and why can’t France let there be queens? How does religion factor in? In short, what is the French nation in the Renaissance, if it’s anything at all? To move toward answering these questions, we will examine a wide variety of texts, tentatively including political treatises (Bodin, Seyssel), polemical treatises on the Religious Wars (Ronsard), literary texts (Montaigne, Du Bellay, Marguerite de Navarre, Rabelais), travel narratives (Léry, Thevet, Champlain), cultural texts on food and fashion, Renaissance cartography, and “green” texts about the land. Texts taken will be a mixture of the canonical and on-canonical. Theoretical texts will include Foucault, Anderson, de Certeau, and Balibar. While the primary texts taken will focus on early modern France, the techniques of analysis are applicable to other cultural contexts and time periods, and are thus meant to give students analytic tools to think about the concept of the nation in other linguistic and temporal contexts. Course taught in French.

Prerequisite(s): none

Check with the department on how often this course is offered.

2642 Classical French Cinema   3 cr.
27671 AT We 01:00 PM-04:50 PM 01218 CL The Cosmopolitan 1930s   No recitation.   Enroll Limit 12 Pettersen, David 

“We might pose as an axiom that the cinema is an international art that developed in strictly national contexts” (Georges Charnesol, Panorama du cinéma, 1929, 27). Two of the most important trends in contemporary film studies have been a growing interest in the idea of transnational films and an anxiety about new media, transmedia, and the future of cinema. In this course, we'll put some pressure on these two interrelated currents by thinking about how they emerge and interact in an earlier period of film history, the French 1930s. This decade occupies a curious place. Although often eulogized as one of the golden ages of French cinema, its emergence after the transition to sound marked the 1930s as one of cinema's first deaths, supposedly ending the cosmopolitanism, internationalism, and experimentation of silent cinema. This course will proceed along two lines. We'll use recent theoretical writings on national cinema, transnationalism, and cosmopolitanism to think about how French cinema of the 1930s might have been a national cinema that evolved in an international space of circulation (and so whether the national is still a useful category in understanding cinema). At the same time, we'll study how mass media technologies such as the radio, the phonograph, and inexpensive photorealistic printing techniques impacted the cinematic landscape and the broader political and artistic world in which it resided. We'll watch a series of more and less well-known 1930s films from all different genres and forms -- documentaries, experimental films, and feature-length narratives -- but also look at musical hall performances, jazz records, radio addresses, and pulp crime tabloids (the new media of the time). The seminar will be taught in English. All films will have subtitles, and all readings will be available in English.

Prerequisite(s): none

Check with the department on how often this course is offered.

2902 Directed Study   1 to 12 cr.
10064 AT  - TBA TBA     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 5 Mecchia, Giuseppina 

Description not available at this time.

Prerequisite(s): none

Check with the department on how often this course is offered.

2910 Comprehensive Examination Ma   1 to 3 cr.
10065 AT  - TBA TBA     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 5 Mecchia, Giuseppina 

Description not available at this time.

Prerequisite(s): none

Check with the department on how often this course is offered.

2970 Teaching Of French   3 cr.
10066 AT Mo 02:00 PM-04:25 PM 00G26 BENDM     No recitation. Combined w/ ITAL 2970 SPAN 2307 FR 2975  Enroll Limit 5 Donato,Richard 

Teaching French, Italian, and German [for beginning TAs] /Advanced Topics in Foreign Language Learning and Teaching [for advanced TAs] This course supports the concept that instructional expertise is developed in and through teaching. Using a modified "lesson study model" of teacher development, new and experienced foreign language instructors will work together to identify problems of practice, discuss the theory and instructional practices that address these pedagogical concerns, and collaboratively develop a lesson to be taught by a member of the class and later analyzed and refined by the class as a whole. Videotapes of these lessons will be used as the primary source of information for analysis, discussion, and reflection. Four major areas will ground our work: 1) designing lessons to promote a language learning community, 2) teaching culture through language, and language through culture, 3) advancing oral language proficiency, and 4) developing literacy in a foreign language. Assignments include participation in collaborative lesson plan development, reflective reports on videotapes of classroom instruction, written analysis of tutorial work with language learners, and a culminating project developed in stages throughout the course that unifies the four themes in a statement of teaching philosophy. Not language specific, this course is intended for current and future teachers in the modern foreign languages.

Prerequisite(s): none

Check with the department on how often this course is offered.

2975 Adv Topics Frgn Lang Lrng Tch   3 cr.
19623 AT Mo 02:00 PM-04:25 PM 00G26 BENDM     No recitation. Combined w/ FR 2970 ITAL 2970 SPAN 2307  Enroll Limit 1 Donato,Richard 

Teaching French, Italian, and German [for beginning TAs] /Advanced Topics in Foreign Language Learning and Teaching [for advanced TAs] This course supports the concept that instructional expertise is developed in and through teaching. Using a modified "lesson study model" of teacher development, new and experienced foreign language instructors will work together to identify problems of practice, discuss the theory and instructional practices that address these pedagogical concerns, and collaboratively develop a lesson to be taught by a member of the class and later analyzed and refined by the class as a whole. Videotapes of these lessons will be used as the primary source of information for analysis, discussion, and reflection. Four major areas will ground our work: 1) designing lessons to promote a language learning community, 2) teaching culture through language, and language through culture, 3) advancing oral language proficiency, and 4) developing literacy in a foreign language. Assignments include participation in collaborative lesson plan development, reflective reports on videotapes of classroom instruction, written analysis of tutorial work with language learners, and a culminating project developed in stages throughout the course that unifies the four themes in a statement of teaching philosophy. Not language specific, this course is intended for current and future teachers in the modern foreign languages.

Prerequisite(s): none

Check with the department on how often this course is offered.

2990 Independent Study   1 to 12 cr.
10067 AT  - TBA TBA     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 20 Mecchia, Giuseppina 

Description not available at this time.

Prerequisite(s): none

Check with the department on how often this course is offered.

3000 Research And Dissertation Phd   1 to 15 cr.
10068 AT  - TBA TBA     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 16 Mecchia, Giuseppina 

Description not available at this time.

Prerequisite(s): none

Check with the department on how often this course is offered.

3902 Directed Study   1 to 12 cr.
10069 AT  - TBA TBA     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 5 Mecchia, Giuseppina 

Description not available at this time.

Prerequisite(s): none

Check with the department on how often this course is offered.

3905 Teaching Apprenticeship   1 to 12 cr.
11183 AT  - TBA TBA     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 10 Mecchia, Giuseppina 

Description not available at this time.

Prerequisite(s): none

Check with the department on how often this course is offered.

3910 Comprehensive Examination   1 to 12 cr.
10070 AT  - TBA TBA     No recitation.   Enroll Limit 15 Mecchia, Giuseppina 

Description not available at this time.

Prerequisite(s): none

Check with the department on how often this course is offered.

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